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Advanced Topics

This chapter provides details for advanced Icinga Web 2 topics.

Global URL Parameters

Parameters starting with _ are for development purposes only.

Parameter Value Description
showFullscreen - Hides the left menu and optimizes the layout for full screen resolution.
showCompact - Provides a compact view. Hides the title and upper menu. This is helpful to embed a dashboard item into an external iframe.
format json/csv/sql Selected views can be exported as JSON or CSV. This also is available in the upper menu. You can also export the SQL queries for manual analysis.
_dev 0/1 Whether the server should return compressed or full JS/CSS files. This helps debugging browser console errors.

Examples for showFullscreen:

http://localhost/icingaweb2/dashboard?showFullscreen http://localhost/icingaweb2/monitoring/list/services?service_problem=1&sort=service_severity&showFullscreen

Examples for showCompact:

http://localhost/icingaweb2/dashboard?showCompact&showFullscreen http://localhost/icingaweb2/monitoring/list/services?service_problem=1&sort=service_severity&showCompact

Examples for format:

http://localhost/icingaweb2/monitoring/list/services?format=json http://localhost/icingaweb2/monitoring/list/services?service_problem=1&sort=service_severity&dir=desc&format=csv

VirtualHost Configuration

This describes how to run Icinga Web 2 on your FQDN’s / entry point without any redirect to /icingaweb2.

VirtualHost Configuration for Apache

Use the setup CLI commands to generate the default Apache configuration which serves Icinga Web 2 underneath /icingaweb2.

The next steps are to create the VirtualHost configuration:

  • Copy the <Directory "/usr/share/icingaweb2/public"> into the main VHost configuration. Don’t forget to correct the indent.
  • Set the DocumentRoot variable to look into /usr/share/icingaweb2/public
  • Modify the RewriteBase variable to use / instead of /icingaweb2

Example on RHEL/CentOS:

vim /etc/httpd/conf.d/web.icinga.com.conf

<VirtualHost *:80>
  ServerName web.icinga.com

  ## Vhost docroot
  # modified for Icinga Web 2
  DocumentRoot "/usr/share/icingaweb2/public"

  ## Rewrite rules
  RewriteEngine On

  <Directory "/usr/share/icingaweb2/public">
      Options SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
      AllowOverride None

      <IfModule mod_authz_core.c>
          # Apache 2.4
              Require all granted

      <IfModule !mod_authz_core.c>
          # Apache 2.2
          Order allow,deny
          Allow from all

      SetEnv ICINGAWEB_CONFIGDIR "/etc/icingaweb2"

      EnableSendfile Off

      <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
          RewriteEngine on
          # modified base
          RewriteBase /
          RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -s [OR]
          RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -l [OR]
          RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} -d
          RewriteRule ^.*$ - [NC,L]
          RewriteRule ^.*$ index.php [NC,L]

      <IfModule !mod_rewrite.c>
          DirectoryIndex error_norewrite.html
          ErrorDocument 404 /error_norewrite.html

Reload Apache and open the FQDN in your web browser.

systemctl reload httpd

Advanced Authentication Tips

Manual User Creation for Database Authentication Backend

Icinga Web 2 v2.5+ uses the native password hash algorithm provided by PHP 5.6+.

In order to generate a password, run the following command with the PHP CLI >= 5.6:

php -r 'echo password_hash("yourtopsecretpassword", PASSWORD_DEFAULT);'

Please note that the hashed output changes each time. This is expected.

Insert the user into the database using the generated password hash.

INSERT INTO icingaweb_user (name, active, password_hash) VALUES ('icingaadmin', 1, '$2y$10$bEKU6.1bRYjE7wxktqfeO.IGV9pYAkDBeXEbjMFSNs26lKTI0JQ1q');


Please do note that the $ character needs to be escaped with a leading backslash in your Puppet manifests.

Example from puppet-icingaweb2:

        exec { 'create default user':
          command     => "mysql -h '${db_host}' -P '${db_port}' -u '${db_username}' -p'${db_password}' '${db_name}' -Ns -e 'INSERT INTO icingaweb_user (name, active, password_hash) VALUES (\"icingaadmin\", 1, \"\$2y\$10\$QnXfBjl1RE6TqJcY85ZKJuP9AvAV3ont9QihMTFQ/D/vHmAWaz.lG\")'",
          refreshonly => true,

Installing Icinga Web 2 from Source

Although the preferred way of installing Icinga Web 2 is to use packages, it is also possible to install Icinga Web 2 directly from source.

Getting the Source

First of all, you need to download the sources.

Git clone:

cd /usr/share/
git clone https://github.com/Icinga/icingaweb2.git icingaweb2

Tarball download (latest release):

cd /usr/share
wget https://github.com/Icinga/icingaweb2/archive/v2.4.1.zip
unzip v2.4.1.zip
mv icingaweb2-2.4.1 icingaweb2

Installing Requirements from Source

You will need to install certain dependencies depending on your setup listed here.

The following example installs Apache2 as web server, MySQL as RDBMS and uses the PHP adapter for MySQL. Adopt the package requirements to your needs (e.g. adding ldap for authentication) and distribution.

Example for RHEL/CentOS/Fedora:

yum install httpd mysql-server
yum install php php-gd php-intl php-ZendFramework php-ZendFramework-Db-Adapter-Pdo-Mysql

The setup wizard will check the pre-requisites later on.

Installing Icinga Web 2

Choose a target directory and move Icinga Web 2 there.

mv icingaweb2 /usr/share/icingaweb2

Configuring the Web Server

Use icingacli to generate web server configuration for either Apache or nginx.


./bin/icingacli setup config webserver apache --document-root /usr/share/icingaweb2/public


./bin/icingacli setup config webserver nginx --document-root /usr/share/icingaweb2/public

Save the output as new file in your webserver’s configuration directory.

Example for Apache on RHEL or CentOS:

./bin/icingacli setup config webserver apache --document-root /usr/share/icingaweb2/public > /etc/httpd/conf.d/icingaweb2.conf

Example for Apache on SUSE:

./bin/icingacli setup config webserver apache --document-root /usr/share/icingaweb2/public > /etc/apache2/conf.d/icingaweb2.conf

Example for Apache on Debian Jessie:

./bin/icingacli setup config webserver apache --document-root /usr/share/icingaweb2/public > /etc/apache2/conf-available/icingaweb2.conf
a2enconf icingaweb2

Example for Apache on Alpine Linux:

icingacli setup config webserver apache --document-root /usr/share/webapps/icingaweb2/public > /etc/apache2/conf.d/icingaweb2.conf

Preparing Icinga Web 2 Setup

You can set up Icinga Web 2 quickly and easily with the Icinga Web 2 setup wizard which is available the first time you visit Icinga Web 2 in your browser. Please follow the steps listed below for preparing the web setup.

Because both web and CLI must have access to configuration and logs, permissions will be managed using a special system group. The web server user and CLI user have to be added to this system group.

Add the system group icingaweb2 in the first place.

Fedora, RHEL, CentOS, SLES and OpenSUSE:

groupadd -r icingaweb2

Debian and Ubuntu:

addgroup --system icingaweb2

Add your web server’s user to the system group icingaweb2 and restart the web server:

Fedora, RHEL and CentOS:

usermod -a -G icingaweb2 apache
service httpd restart

SLES and OpenSUSE:

usermod -A icingaweb2 wwwrun
service apache2 restart

Debian and Ubuntu:

usermod -a -G icingaweb2 www-data
service apache2 restart

Alpine Linux:

gpasswd -a apache icingaweb2
rc-service apache2 restart

Use icingacli to create the configuration directory which defaults to /etc/icingaweb2:

./bin/icingacli setup config directory

When using the web setup you are required to authenticate using a token. In order to generate a token use the icingacli:

./bin/icingacli setup token create

In case you do not remember the token you can show it using the icingacli:

./bin/icingacli setup token show

Icinga Web 2 Setup Wizard

Finally visit Icinga Web 2 in your browser to access the setup wizard and complete the installation: /icingaweb2/setup.

Paste the previously generated token and follow the steps on-screen. Then you are done here.

Icinga Web 2 Manual Setup

If you have chosen not to run the setup wizard, you will need further knowledge about

  • manual creation of the Icinga Web 2 database icingaweb2 including a default user (optional as authentication and session backend)
  • additional configuration for the application
  • additional configuration for the monitoring module (e.g. the IDO database and external command pipe from Icinga 2)

This comes in handy if you are planning to deploy Icinga Web 2 automatically using Puppet, Ansible, Chef, etc.


Read the documentation on the respective linked configuration sections before deploying the configuration manually.

If you are unsure about certain settings, use the setup wizard once and then collect the generated configuration as well as sql dumps.

Icinga Web 2 Manual Database Setup

Create the database and add a new user as shown below for MySQL/MariaDB:

sudo mysql -p

GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, DROP, CREATE VIEW, INDEX, EXECUTE ON icingaweb2.* TO 'icingaweb2'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'icingaweb2';

mysql -p icingaweb2 < /usr/share/doc/icingaweb2/schema/mysql.schema.sql

Then generate a new password hash as described in the authentication docs and use it to insert a new user called icingaadmin into the database.

mysql -p icingaweb2

INSERT INTO icingaweb_user (name, active, password_hash) VALUES ('icingaadmin', 1, '$1$EzxLOFDr$giVx3bGhVm4lDUAw6srGX1');

Icinga Web 2 Manual Configuration

resources.ini providing the details for the Icinga Web 2 and Icinga 2 IDO database configuration. Example for MySQL:

vim /etc/icingaweb2/resources.ini

type                = "db"
db                  = "mysql"
host                = "localhost"
port                = "3306"
dbname              = "icingaweb2"
username            = "icingaweb2"
password            = "icingaweb2"

type                = "db"
db                  = "mysql"
host                = "localhost"
port                = "3306"
dbname              = "icinga"
username            = "icinga"
password            = "icinga"

config.ini defining general application settings.

vim /etc/icingaweb2/config.ini

log                 = "syslog"
level               = "ERROR"
application         = "icingaweb2"

type                = "db"
resource            = "icingaweb2"

authentication.ini for e.g. using the previously created database.

vim /etc/icingaweb2/authentication.ini

backend             = "db"
resource            = "icingaweb2"

roles.ini granting the previously added icingaadmin user all permissions.

vim /etc/icingaweb2/roles.ini

users               = "icingaadmin"
permissions         = "*"

Icinga Web 2 Manual Configuration Monitoring Module

config.ini defining additional security settings.

vim /etc/icingaweb2/modules/monitoring/config.ini

protected_customvars = "*pw*,*pass*,community"

backends.ini referencing the Icinga 2 DB IDO resource.

vim /etc/icingaweb2/modules/monitoring/backends.ini

type                = "ido"
resource            = "icinga2"

commandtransports.ini defining the Icinga 2 API command transport.

vim /etc/icingaweb2/modules/monitoring/commandtransports.ini

transport = "api"
host = "localhost"
port = "5665"
username = "api"
password = "api"

Icinga Web 2 Manual Setup Login

Finally visit Icinga Web 2 in your browser to login as icingaadmin user: /icingaweb2.

Automating the Installation of Icinga Web 2

Prior to creating your own script, please look into the official resources which may help you already:

If you are automating the installation of Icinga Web 2, you may want to skip the wizard and do things yourself. These are the steps you’d need to take assuming you are using MySQL/MariaDB. If you are using PostgreSQL please adapt accordingly. Note you need to have successfully completed the Icinga 2 installation, installed the Icinga Web 2 packages and all the other steps described above first.

  1. Install PHP dependencies: php, php-intl, php-imagick, php-gd, php-mysql, php-curl, php-mbstring used by Icinga Web 2.
  2. Set a timezone in php.ini configuration file.
  3. Create a database for Icinga Web 2, i.e. icingaweb2.
  4. Import the database schema: mysql -D icingaweb2 < /usr/share/icingaweb2/etc/schema/mysql.schema.sql.
  5. Insert administrator user in the icingaweb2 database: INSERT INTO icingaweb_user (name, active, password_hash) VALUES ('admin', 1, '<hash>'), where <hash> is the output of openssl passwd -1 <password>.
  6. Make sure the ido-mysql and api features are enabled in Icinga 2: icinga2 feature enable ido-mysql and icinga2 feature enable api.
  7. Generate Apache/nginx config. This command will print an apache config for you on stdout: icingacli setup config webserver apache. Similarly for nginx. You need to place that configuration in the right place, for example /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/icingaweb2.conf.
  8. Add www-data user to icingaweb2 group if not done already (usermod -a -G icingaweb2 www-data).
  9. Create the Icinga Web 2 configuration in /etc/icingaweb2. The directory can be easily created with: icingacli setup config directory. This command ensures that the directory has the appropriate ownership and permissions. If you want to create the directory manually, make sure to chown the group to icingaweb2 and set the access mode to 2770.

The structure of the configurations looks like the following:


Have a look here for the contents of the files.